“The Inner State of the Human Heart During a Righteous and a Sinful Life”: A Manuscript and a Modern Lubok of the Chasovennye Old Believers on the Yenisei

Альманах
Key words
Old Believers’ lubok, visual images, Chasovennye Old Believers, folk picture, book culture, book miniature, manuscript
Author
Ekaterina V. Bykova
About the Author
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6024-5398
E-mail: ev2_74@mail.ru Tel.: +7 (8332) 74-24-71
36, Moskovskaya str., Kirov, 610000, Russian Federation
PhD in Arts, Associate Professor, Department of Culture Studies and Sociology, Vyatka State University
Received
Date of publication
DOI
https://doi.org/10.26158/TK.2021.22.2.012
Acknowledgements

This research was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, project No. 19–012–00238 “Local Traditions and Historical Memory in the Art of the Old Believers of the 20th — ​early 21st Century.

Body

This article examines the source of the visual imagery in an Old Believer illuminated manuscript of Mother Macedonia, created in the 1950s‑1960s on the Yenisei River, and in the modern lubok “The Inner State of the Human Heart During a Righteous and a Sinful Life,” drawn in 2011 in Chasovennye Old Believer female monasteries on the Dubches River in the Krasnoyarsk Territory. Comparison of the illuminated manuscript with the book “The Human Heart,” published in large editions in Russia in the 18th — ​20th centuries, reveals the materials used in creating the lubok. These two written sources, the illuminated manuscript and the lubok, that are here introduced to scholarship, testify to the perseverance of the book and lubok traditions despite fundamental changes in culture and technology. The anthropology of the lubok is revealed in the image of the “inner state of the heart,” reflecting a person’s choice of life path, righteous or sinful. Comparative analysis and commentary on the image allow us to better understand the worldview and perception of those who created it. In general, the tradition of copying books and creating popular prints is alive among the Old Believer communities on the Yenisei and performs didactic and communicative functions, as also evidenced by the stories of informants and artifacts found on expeditions in the Krasnoyarsk Territory.

References

Belova O. V., Petrukhin V. Ya. (2008) Fol’klor i knizhnost’. Mif i istoricheskie realii [Folklore and Book Culture: Myth and Historical Realities]. Moscow: Nauka. In Russian.

Bykova E. V., Kostrov A. V. (2019) Staroobryadcheskii lubok “Dve dorogi — ​Dva puti”: kommentirovannoe prochtenie vizual’nogo obraza [The Old Believer Lubok “Two Roads — ​Two Ways”: A Reading of the Visual Image with Commentary]. Kirov: Kirovskaya oblastnaya tipografiya. In Russian.

Bykova E. V., Prigarin A. A. (2019) Vizual’nyi obraz chernoriztsa v starovercheskikh rukopisyakh na Enisee [The Visual Image of a Monk in Old Believer Manuscripts on the Yenisei]. In: Etnos i konfessiya [Ethnos and Denomination]: Proc. of the 18th Intern. St. Petersburg Ethnographic Readings. St. Petersburg: IPTs SPbGUTD. Pp. 33–38. In Russian.

Bykova E. V., Prigarin A. A. (2019a) Mir vizual’nykh obrazov staroobryadtsev Tuvy: ot ikony i lubochnoi kartinki do fotografii Tuvy [The World of Visual Images of the Tuva Old Believers: From Icons and Popular Prints to Photos of Tuva]. Novye issledovaniya Tuvy [New Research of Tuva]. 2019. No. 1. URL: https://nit.tuva.asia/nit/article/ view/803 (retrieved: 21.12.2020). DOI: 10.25178/ nit.2019.1.6

Bykova E. V., Prigarin А. А. (2020) Sud’ba knizhnitsy-starovera v kontekste biograficheskikh rekonstruktsii: (so)znanie chasovennykh Eniseya i dokumental’nye poiski [The Fate of an Old Believer Writer in the Context of Biographical Reconstructions: Knowledge (Consciousness) of the Yenisei Chasovennye and Documentary Searches]. In: Staroobryadchestvo v istorii i kul’ture Rossii: problemy izucheniya (k 400-letiyu so dnya rozhdeniya protopopa Avvakuma) [Old Believers in the History and Culture of Russia: Problems of Study (On the 400th
Anniversary of Archpriest Avvakum’s Birth)]. Ed. V. N. Zakharov. Moscow: Institut Rossiiskoi istorii RAN. Pp. 314–328. In Russian.

Itkina E. I. (2017) Risovannyi lubok staroobryadtsev v sobranii Istoricheskogo muzeya [A Hand-Drawn Old Believer Lubok in the Collection of the Historical Museum]. Moscow: Gosudarstvennyi istoricheskii muzei. In Russian.

Khromov O. R. (1998) Russkaya tsel’nogravirovannaya lubochnaya kniga: (Issledovanie po istorii knizhnoi kul’tury i tekhnike proizvodstva) [The Russian Engraved Popular Print Book: Research on the History of Book Culture and Production Techniques]. Moscow: Pamyatniki istoricheskoi mysli. In Russian.

Lotman Yu. M. (1976) Khudozhestvennaya priroda russkikh narodnykh kartinok [The Artistic Nature of Russian Folk Pictures]. In: Narodnaya gravyura i fol’klor v Rossii XVII–XIX vv.: K 150-letiyu so dnya rozhdeniya D. A. Rovinskogo [The Folk Gravure and Folklore in Russia of the 17th
— ​the 19th Centuries: On the 150th Anniversary of D. A. Rovinskii’s Birth]: Proc. of Schol. Conf. Ed. by I. E. Danilova. Moscow: Sovetskii khudozhnik. Pp. 79–153. In Russian

Pletneva A. A. (2013) Lubochnaya Bibliya: yazyk i tekst [The Lubok Bible: Language and Text]. Moscow: Yazyki slavyanskoi kul’tury. In Russian.

Pokrovskii N. N. (ed.) (2014) Uralo-Sibirskii paterik: teksty i kommentarii [Ural-Siberian Patericon: Texts and Commentary]. Bk. 1 (Vol. 1, 2). Moscow: Yazyki slavyanskoi kul’tury. In Russian.

Sokolov B. M. (1999) Khudozhestvennyi mir russkogo lubka [The Artistic World of the Russian Lubok]. Moscow: RGGU. In Russian Zhuravel O. D. (2012) Literaturnoe tvorchestvo staroobryadtsev XVIII — ​nachala XXI v.: temy, problemy, poetika [The Literary Creativity of Old Believers in the 18th — ​Beginning of 21st Century: Issues, Problems, Poetics]. Novosibirsk: Izdatel’stvo SO RAN. In Russian.

For citation

Bykova E. V. “The Inner State of the Human Heart During a Righteous and a Sinful Life”: A Manuscript and a Modern Lubok of the Chasovennye Old Believers on the Yenisei. Traditional Culture. 2021. Vol. 22. No. 2. Pp. 143–152. In Russian.