Скачать pdf
Key words
ritual tree, calendar tradition, ceremonial center, sacred locus.
About the Author
E-mail: Tel.: +7 (4822) 33-15-01
1-1, Smolenskiy side-str., Tver’, 170100, Russian Federation
PhD (Pedagogics), associate professor, Tver’ Branch, State Academy of Slavic Culture

This paper is based on folklore and ethnographic evidences of remaining relicts of sacred attitude to plants in the ritualism of Christmastide in some parts of Tver’ region. These evidences have been received both by the author herself during long-term folklore-ethnographic fi eld-work at Tver’ region and also found out in printed scholarly literature. Due to the stated theme, the article deals with evidences of the winter traditional calendar agricultural customs of Tver’ region equipped with vegetation attributes and symbols.

The article is built consistently in accordance with the calendar festive dates of Christmastide. Evidences of archaic calendar phenomenon of the vegetation cult are selected both for wild-growing and cultivated plants. Presentation of the folklore-ethnographic data is intended to the systematization of the material connected with the ritual-magic and oracular function of plants in the rite. In particular, there are ritual episodes revealed in Christmastide and Shrovetide where trees are fi guring as a ceremonial center and take the role of the ritual tree. The other side of the vegetation cult represented in the article is connected with the sacred status of defi nite plants in the calendar of Tver’. That status allows involving them in the ceremony as a sacred locus or sacred attribute what should provide effi  ciency of magic spells and prophecy. Besides that, the article considers mythopoeic echoes of the traditional perception of plants as symbolic substitutes of a human remaining in the rites.


Agapkina T. A. (2002) Mifopoeticheskie osnovy slavyanskogo narodnogo kalendarya. Vesenne-letniy tsikl [Mythopoetic foundations of Slavic folk calendar. Spring-summer cycle]. Moscow. In Russian.

Famintsyn A. S. (1895) Boginya vesny i smerti v pesnyakh i obryadakh slavyan [Goddess of spring and death in songs and rites of Slavs]. Vestnik Evropy [Herald of Europe]. 1895. No. 7. P. 149. In Russian.

Ivanov M. I. (1912) Svyatochnye novogodnie gadaniya [Yuletide Christmastide divinations]. Tverskaya starina [Tver’ antiquity]. 1912. No. 1. In Russian.

Kirsanov A. G. (2014) Starinnye svadebnye obychai v Bezhetskom krae [Old wedding customs in Bezhetsk territory]. Istoriko-kraevedcheskiy al’manakh «Bezhetskiy kray»: Traditsionnaya kul’tura Bezhetskogo kraya [Local historical almanac “Bezhetsk territory”: Traditional culture of Bezhetsk territory]. Bezhetsk. 2014. Issue 11. Pp. 8–38. In Russian.

Kopylova M. L. (1999) «Volochenie eli» v selakh Orshanskogo rayona Respubliki Mariy El [Spruce draggling in villages of Orshanka district of Mari El Republic]. Zhivaya starina [Alive antiquity]. 1999. No. 4. P. 29. In Russian.

Logunov M. L. (ed.) Traditsionnaya kul’tura Tverskogo kraya: Svad’ba: Pamyati N. P. Kudryashova (1924–1998): Stat’i i publikatsii [Traditional culture of Tver’ region: Wedding: In memoriam of N. P. Kudryashov (1924–1998): Papers and publications]. Tver’. In Russian.

Propp V. Ya. (1995) Russkie agrarnye prazdniki [Russian agrarian holidays]. St. Petersburg. In Russian.

Shangina I. I. (2008) Russkie devushki [Russian maidens]. St. Petersburg. In Russian.

Sitnikova S. A. (2010) Maslenichnaya obryadnost’ v Torzhokskom rayone Tverskoy oblasti (po materialam ekspeditsiy GASK 2006–2009 gg.) [Shrovetide ceremonialism in Torzhok distrtict of Tver’ region (in materials of expeditions of State academy of Slavic culture]. Mat. of sc. —  pract. conf. “Link between times”. Ed. by B. N. Glebskiy. Toropets. Pp. 87–95. In Russian.

Tolstaya S. M. (1998) Simvolicheskie zamestiteli cheloveka v narodnoy magii [Symbolic substitutes of human in folk magic]. In: Sud’by traditsionnoy kul’tury: Sb. st. i mater. pamyati Larisy Ivlevoy [Destinies of traditional culture: Coll. papers in memoriam of Larisa Ivleva]. St. Petersburg. P. 77. In Russian.

Toporov V. N. (2010) “Mirovoe derevo”: universal›nyy obraz mifopoeticheskogo soznaniya [World tree: universal image of mythopoetic consciousness]. In. Mirovoe derevo: Universal’nye znakovye kompleksy [World tree: Universal sign complexes]. Vol. 1. Moscow. Pp. 263–289. In Russian.

Toporov V. N. (2010) K proiskhozhdeniyu nekotorykh poeticheskikh simvolov [Origin of some poetic symbols]. In: Mirovoe derevo: Universal’nye znakovye kompleksy [World tree: Universal sign complexes]. Vol. 2. Moscow. Pp. 324–336. In Russian.

Zelenin D. K. (1999) Totemicheskiy kul’t derev’ev u russkikh i belorusov [Totemic cult of trees among Russian and Belarusians]. In: Izbrannye trudy: Stat’i po dukhovnoy kul’ture. 1917– 1934 [Selected works: Papers on spiritual culture 1917–1934]. Pref., comp., ed., comm.. by T. G. Ivanova. Moscow. Pp. 140–180. In Russian.