Скачать pdf
Key words
Tuva people, Kanas, national parks, ethno-cultural tourism, identity
About the Author
Tel.: +7 (495) 938-00-19
32a, Leninskiy av., Moscow, 119334, Russian Federation
PhD in Law, Post-doc Fellow, N. N. Miklukho-Maklay Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Science
Date of publication

During the three last decades villages in Xinjiang populated by China’s Tuva people were turned into destinations for mass tourism. This brought significant changes to their traditional lifestyle, heavily influenced their self-identity and shaped the development of their ethnic culture. Ethno-cultural tourism is also heavily promoted now in Russia as a sort of panacea for issues concerning national minorities and the author attempts to highlight the risks this entails, taking the Tuva people of Xinjiang as an example. He shows that “ethnic monetization” caused by the pursuit of profit, unavoidable during this process, may cause a loss of dignity, conflict over values and, eventually, social and cultural marginalization of territories that have been turned into exhibitions of traditional culture. The article suggests that in order to avoid similar excesses the interests of the indigenous groups in question must be taken into consideration, their living environment preserved, and their traditional culture not turned into commodities.


Graburn N. H. H. (1977) Tourism: The sacred journey. In: Hosts and guests: The anthropology
of tourism. V. L. Smith (ed.). Philadelphia. Pp. 33–47. In English.

Gurin S. P. (2004) Turizm kak antropologicheskiy fenomen [Tourism as an anthropological
phenomenon]. Topos. 2004. 23 March. URL: (retrieved: 17.03.2019). In Russian.

Korf E. D. (2017) Problemy i perspektivy razvitiya geoparka “Altay” [Problems and perspectives of “Altai” geopark development]. Obshchestvo. Sreda. Razvitiye [Society. Environment. Development]. 2017. No. 2. Pp. 108–115. In Russian.

Nash D. (1996) Anthropology of tourism. New York. In English.

Nguyen T. (2014) 对民族文化记忆的诉求 — 亚洲内击民族文化发展经历启示. Dui minzu wenhua jiyi de suqiu — Yazhou neiji minzu wenhua fazhan jingli qishi [The need for ethnic memory. Lessons of cultural development of the peoples of Inner Asia]. PhD Thesis in Social Anthropology. Beijing. In Chinese.

Salazar N. B. (2017) Anthropologies of tourism. American Anthropologist. 2017. Vol. 119. No. 4. Pp. 723–747. In English.

Svyatokha N. Yu., Filimonova I. Yu. (2014) Podkhody k klassifikatsii etnicheskogo turizma [Approaches to the classification of ethnic tourism]. Vestnik Orenburgskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta [Orenburg State University Herald]. 2014. No. 6 (167). Pp. 179–183. In Russian.

Yusha Zh. M. (2018) Fol’klor i obryad tuvintsev Kitaya v nachale XXI veka: struktura, semantika, pragmatika [Folklore and rituals of Tuvans at the start of the 21st century. Structure, semantics, pragmatics]. PhD Thesis in Philology. Moscow. In Russian.

Voronkova L. P. (2013) U istokov antropologii turizma: Viktor Turner [The origins of the anthropology of tourism]. Russkiy nauchnyy zhurnal [Russian science magazine]. 2013. No. 1 (32). Pp. 70–75. In Russian.

郭蕴华, 吐娜 (1987) 新疆阿勒泰地区的 蒙古族与“图瓦人”. Guo Yunhua, Tuna. Xinjiang Alietai diqu de mengguzu yu “tuwaren” [“Tuvan” people and Mongols of the Altai district of Xinjiang]. Social Sciences in Xinjiang. 1987. No. 15. Pp. 4–5. In Chinese.

关丙胜 (2011) 族群的演进博弈 — 中国图瓦人研究. Guan Bingsheng. Zuqun de yanjin boyi — Zhonnguo tuwaren yanjiu [The game of ethnic evolution. Research on China’s Tuva people]. Beijing. In Chinese.

南快莫德格, 阿地力. 哈斯木 (2008) 论新疆图瓦蒙古人的生态. Nankuai Modege, Adili Hasimu. Xinjiang Tuwa Mengguren de shengtaiguan [On the ecological worldview of Xinjiang Tuva Mongolian people]. Social Sciences in Xinjiang. 2008. No. 4. Pp. 96–99. In Chinese.

苏北海 (1985) 新疆阿尔泰山区土瓦族的来源和现. Su Beihai. Xinjiang Aertai shanqu Tuwazu
de laiyuan he xianzhuang [The origin and current situation of the Tuvan people of the Altai mountains in Xinjiang]. Journal of Xinjiang University (Philosophy, Humanities & Social Science). 1985. No. 1. Pp. 41–49. In Chinese.

For citation

Mikhalev M. S. The influence of mass tourism on the culture, lifestyle and identity of the Tuva people of Xinjiang. Traditional culture. 2019. Vol. 20. No. 2. Pp. 23–35. In Russian.